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Essay写作中的body部分如何顺利完成?

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美伦教育 2019-09-03 14:51 抢发第一评

  对于同学们来说,动不动就是一篇Essay,可以说是家常便饭了。之前我们分享过很多有关于Essay写作的文章,今天小编再具体聊聊正文部分。

  正文部分(Body)的作用主要是阐述文章的中心思想或主题,一般占文中最大的比重并且也是最重要的部分。

  正文通常由几段构成,每段称为body paragraph。

  body paragraph可以由TAXES式或“汉堡包”式的结构组成,这两类结构都能够有助于我们围绕着主题来展开论述。

  TAXES式

  Topic Sentence(主题句):一句话阐述此段的论点

  Assertion statements(主张句):用几句话阐明论点

  eXample(例子):举例一些相关事实

  Explanation(解释):联系观点和例子,说明上面的例子是如何支持论点的。

  Significance(意义):总结阐释本段论点是怎么论证文章主题的。

  “汉堡包”式

  Topic Sentence(主题句):用一个中心提出观点

  Supporting Evidence(支持论据):用事例来证明

  Conclusion Sentence(总结句):扣住观点分析材料

  接下来,我们再说一些essay写作中的重点。

  Topic Sentence的写作要点

  第一,要弄清楚主题句是在表达一个观点,而不是事实。

  错误事实:Plagiarizing is to steal and pass off the ideas or words of another as one's own.

  正确观点:People can avoid plagiarizing by taking certain precautions.

  第二,主题句要具体点明一个观点,而不是只是说一个话题、

  错误话题:Today I'm going to discuss the benefits of gardening.

  正确观点:Gardening gives us pleasure and is very effective to our minds.

  最后,你的观点不能使泛泛而谈,而是非常确定的,不能模糊。

  错误模糊:The United States suffered a lot during the Civil War.

  正确确切:Sherman's destruction in the South during the Civil War also caused incredible suffering.

  如何引用论据

  有一个原则是我们要遵守的,所有列举的论据,都必须要保证与主题有关。

  论据包含以下几种类型:

  Research data(研究数据)

  Published case studies(公开的案例研究)

  Published opinions(发表的观点)

  Facts(事实)

  Research from books,journal articles,websites,etc.(书刊、网站等媒体上的调查研究)

  论据的引述方法:

  Summarising(概括):

  用简洁的语言概括原本的信息

  Quoting(引用):

  逐字逐句地复制原本的信息

  Paraphrasing(复述):

  重新组织原本的信息

  并且我们还需要记住两个重点:1、论据要自然地穿插于文中;2.切记一定要标明论据的来源。

  比如下面例子中的表达:

  Further insight into income inequality is provided by Dr.Delaney,an economist at Stanford,who is of the opinion that…

  重要的过渡

  文章的段落与段落之间、句与句之间,都需要良好的过渡。

  过渡能够让文章具有连贯性和统一性,没有过渡的文章就是句子随机拼凑在一起,文中的逻辑很难叫人领会。

  错误无过渡:Students who write academic essays need to provide effective transitions.Transitions allow writers to connect the main ideas that are present in an essay.Using conjunctive adverbs and other introductory elements allow a writer to connect one sentence to the next.The use of these words will make the writing more fluent and less choppy.Many students fail to use effective transitions,and the essay comes across as disconnected.Writers should always be aware of the need to connect both sentences and paragraphs together.

  正确有过渡:Students who write academic essays need to provide effective transitions.It is the use of these transitions that allow writers to connect the main ideas that are present in an essay.For example,by using conjunctive adverbs and other introductory elements,a writer can easily connect one sentence to the next.Moreover,the use of these words will make the writing more fluent and less choppy.Unfortunately,students often fail to use effective transitions,and,as a result,the essay comes across as disconnected.To avoid this,writers should always be aware of the need to connect both sentences and paragraphs together,and they should strive to find creative ways to do so.

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